This book comprises a set of papers that were prepared for and delivered at the Global Competition Law Centre’s Annual Conference “Modernisation and Enlargement: Two Major Challenges for EC Competition Law”. The book presents an analysis of the new Regulation 1/2003 on the implementation of the competition rules laid down in Article 81 and 82 of the Treaty. This new Regulation represents a cultural revolution for EC competition lawyers, who were accustomed to notifying agreements in order to obtain some legal certainty for their clients. Modernisation opens up a brand new world where corporations and their lawyers will be asked to self-assess the validity of their agreements under EC competition law. The direct effect given to Article 81(3) will also stimulate implementation at the national level, including actions in national courts, although several procedural issues may impede private actions in courts. Amongc its other features, Regulation 1/2003 also creates a European Competition Network (ECN), which provides an institutional focus for cooperation between the NCAs and the Commission, as well as among the NCAs themselves. Enlargement of the European Union was one of the factors, which contributed to the adoption of Regulation 1/2003. Enlargement will expand the geographical scope of application of EC competition rules, but it will also create many important challenges. The NCAs of the new Member States are relatively new organisations, which in some cases lack the expertise and resources to pursue a credible enforcement agenda. These Member States are, however, willing to take on those challenges and, though a period of adaptation will be needed, there are no reasons why they should be unable to progressively develop a successful competition policy. Already, some agencies (e.g., in Hungary or Poland) have developed a credible enforcement record. This book is invaluable for all EU competition lawyers.
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